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Jurists, without having any kind of measurable scale, had already assigned fractions to these so-called indices of proof. This labor was called “mechanical,” even though it’s done only with quill pen and paper. There’s an obvious and perhaps a less obvious attraction to doing this kind of history. Even in the most ideal conditions, optimization systems—constrained, more often than not, by the imperatives of profit-generating corporations—are designed to ruthlessly maximize one metric at the expense of others. In both of these sites, a great deal of calculation had to be done by hand. Drawing on a Kaleckian framework which sees output as a function of effective demand, their paper distinguishes between "wage-led" and "profit-led" growth regimes. Software that structures increasingly detailed aspects of contemporary life is built for optimization. Technical improvements strengthened the relationship between the notions of mechanical and calculation. It’s salutary to work in a language like German, which, unlike English, did not narrow the meaning of “science” in the 19th century to mean only the natural sciences. Jack Gross is a writer, editor, and researcher in New York. How do you see the history of science in relation to the social sciences more broadly? As for the law, there are two aspects of legal thought that turned out to be seminal for probability: degrees of proof, and aleatory contracts. This is a form of reasoning which is quite familiar to us, even if its quantification by an arithmetic of proof now seems strange: weighing and combining strong evidence with weak evidence in order to come to a reasoned judgment. Those negative connotations deepen in the 18th century. Could you describe this history and how you came to see the development of calculation as a story about the division of labor? Jack Gross . This was a story of radical novelty, in which suddenly, like a volcano erupting, something completely new appeared in the intellectual landscape. They have also lived in Key Largo, FL and Miami Gardens, FL. Many of us are trained in the sciences, while our methods are very much those of the historian. That really changes over the course of the 20th century. The buyer and seller are betting on whether the commodities in question will be more or less expensive than they are now. VARIED NET The politics of welfare in the 21st century. We spoke over the phone to discuss the labor of calculation, the various emergences of formal rationality, and the importance of interdisciplinarity in the social sciences. Amidst the ever expanding reach of all varieties of quantification and algorithmic formalization, both the earliest of Daston's works (the 1988 book Classical Probability in the Enlightenment) and her most recent (an ongoing project on the history of rules) perform this task, uncovering the contingencies that swirled around the invention of mathematical probability, and the rise of algorithmic rule-making. Jackie is related to Dorothy J Gross and Arthur L Gross as well as 3 additional people. In commodities markets, purchasing wheat or pork belly futures for the next year would be an example. I became interested in quantification abstractly, but also quite concretely—as I was the object of some of these attempts to quantify judgment. Never in the history of human rulemaking have we created a rule or a law that did not stub its toe against unanticipated particulars (just ask the Facebook moderators who must clean up after the algorithms). Similarly influential work conducted with Amit Bhaduri contested neoclassical models that view economic growth as a product of technological advancement and increases in the factors of production. Why not just follow their lead? If there’s inconsistency in judgment, it’s prima facie evidence for injustice. The content published here does not necessarily reflect the views of the Jain Family Institute. And the question is why. He manages the Phenomenal World. jg: I wanted to ask a general question about your first book, Classical Probability in the Enlightenment. The people behind the curtain in modern AI projects are of two sorts: those who are thinking about how to divide a very complicated task into the tiniest possible steps, very much in the tradition of the history of mechanical calculation; and those whose work is compensatory for algorithmic systems—Facebook moderators, for example, who monitor objectionable content missed by the algorithms meant to eliminate it automatically. The best result we found for your search is Jack P Gross age 60s in Robbinsville, NC. Select this result to view Jack Gross's phone number, address, and more. ld: Originally, in ancient Rome, the term “mechanical” referred to simple machines like a pulley or a lever, but, by the Middle Ages, it had already developed derogatory associations. "I've been doing this for quite some time, I don't recall since the I-78 boom in late 80s, early 90s, such an appreciation rate," said Jack Gross, President of Greater Lehigh Valley REALTORS. For millennia, at least in the Western philosophical tradition, logic was a matter of yes-or-no: a statement was either true or false. Where does this phrase come from? That’s because of an ancient philosophical and still unsolved problem: no universal can foresee all the particulars that it will encounter. The goal is to make one’s judgment consistent over the long run. Mixed Martial Arts on ESPN.com: latest news, scores, schedule, stats, and highlights from ESPN JFI’s work sits at the intersection of economics, politics, information technology, finance, and culture to bring promising ideas from theory to practice. How did the early probabilists draw on the law for the concepts that they thought needed quantification? Little Mephisto — Phenomenal World . We publish research, analysis, and commentary from JFI staff and fellows, as well as from external researchers and writers. The second aspect of legal theory that underpinned early formulations of mathematical probability was the so-called aleatory contract, which depends on an uncertain future outcome. In legal contexts, this situation is familiar: sometimes applying the letter of the law betrays the spirit of the law—think of The Merchant of Venice as a paradigmatic case. Jack likes writing stories and scripts, at last count he had over 40 stories in the works. jg: There’s a striking phrase that you use to describe their goals, which is that they “were seeking to quantify the intuitions of an elite of reasonable men.” They were thinking about formalizing legal concepts for business activities, and about how to rationalize certain aspects of the justice system, but they were also seeking to quantify their own cognitive capacities as “reasonable” people. This was crucial to the Enlightenment project. There is, however, a major difference between attempts to formalize reasoning from, say, 18th-century probability theory, and more modern notions of algorithmic rationality. There are some perils to this approach: no universal ever fits the particulars. Small Wonder (TV Series 1985–1989) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. The word mechanical begins also to denote the kind of person who does that work. How does the unthinkable become something we cannot think away anymore? Jack Gross: Regulating the Poor develops a theoretical framework for the function of welfare in the United States—how did you develop this approach to American welfare, and how did you … Phenomenal World is a publication managed by staff of the Jain Family Institute. ld: If you look at the details of, for example, the British Nautical Almanac, you can see that there have always been people like the moderators who are tasked with cleaning up—people behind the scenes checking and proofreading calculations, and identifying where things go wrong. There’s another element, however: the actual improvements in mechanical calculation, which allowed for the smoother working of a calculating machine. Sign up for the JFI Letter, a weekly digest of compelling research across the social sciences. Her two books—which deal, respectively, with New York City's 1970s fiscal crisis and the rise of conservative business movement—also offer cautionary tales about the severe constraints under which political officials operate, and the ease with which powerful reactionary interests organize, relative to the public interest. These programs require a mapping of the world in a way that is computationally legible, and translating the messy world into one that makes sense to a computer is imperfect. James McNeil Whistler, Red and Pink the Little Mephisto, 1884 . View phone numbers, addresses, public records, background check reports and possible arrest records for Jack Donald Gross. And yet we know from history—and I know from my lifetime—that our deepest intuitions about all sorts of things, and in particular justice and injustice, can change dramatically. Jack is related to Sandra J Gross and Donald P Gross as well as 3 additional people. Official channels for redress offer little help: alleviating out-group concerns is by necessity counter to the interests of the optimization system and its target customers. jg: The continuity I was after was between people who work under similar labor conditions as content moderators—often low-wage workers in the Global South, contracted to large American tech firms—but who are performing tasks more closely akin to those of calculators: they are the machine behind the machine, tagging images for computer vision programs and the like. The major reason is that the vast majority of people did not belong to the reasonable male elite. After many of Jack's colleagues over the age of 50 were met with a similar fate, he decided to fight back against what he believed to be a clear injustice, and at first, the courts were on … As he put it, in his characteristic style: before 1654, there was no concept of probability; it was an unthinkable concept. Jack Gross Research Writer and Editor Jack Gross is a writer, editor and researcher. I think it’s striking, if you take the longue durée view of the evolution of the sciences, to recall where these divisions of knowledge we take for granted come from. If all who were entitled to government benefits claimed them, they argued, the system would buckle, exposing the magnitude of American poverty and the inadequacy of its safety net. Divisions of labor between workers, managers, and bosses do not, Marglin argued, serve increases in productivity and material prosperity, but rather the consolidation of wealth and power. (Harvard College Observatory). Our conversation was edited for length and clarity. Of course, algorithmic rules also have a long history: the rules of arithmetic are the ur-algorithmic rules, but they constitute a tiny minority of all rules. It’s really important to distinguish between these two groups of people, because they are performing two very different tasks. Prudential Insurance, for example, had a workshop entirely devoted to repairing broken down calculating machines. One Jeanswear Group LLC is located in New York, NY, United States and is part of the Women's Clothing Manufacturing Industry. Until the late-19th century, calculation was called mechanical labor, but no machines were involved. Cloward and Piven published the article in the midst of an intense period of grassroots activity among welfare recipients. They have also lived in Brooklyn, NY Jack is related to Lisa H Gross and Gross Paul as well as 1 additional person. ld: I think that’s correct, but I didn’t initially think of these projects as being linked. jg: A final question I want to ask is about your discipline. Starting in the mid-19th century, when mechanical calculation genuinely becomes practically possible, the ambit of algorithmic rules grows, and by the middle of the 20th century, they become a form of rationality very much associated with the Cold War. This seems to follow a logic of automating material production, where you look at the total process, disassemble it into component parts, and then deskill and automate it. Sometimes Jack goes by various nickname including Jack N Gross. I think there are two explanations: one minor, and one major, and both are still very much with us. I think it’s an artifact of the educational system. These two modes of inquiry, so often opposed to each other, seem to me to work hand-in-glove, at least from the standpoint of the goals of scientific explanation. Few theorists of social movements have shaped the events that they analyze. But this leads to another, perhaps less obvious question: How does the once-unthinkable become not only thinkable but self-evident? The best result we found for your search is Jackie Gross age 40s in Cimarron, KS. Phenomenal World January 29th, 2020 Historicizing the Self-Evident — Jack Gross The first stems from a much ridiculed doctrine of the arithmetic of proof, highly developed in 16th-century legal and casualist thinking, in which the testimony of different witnesses and different kinds of evidence are assigned different weights. Like someone who lives in a flight path but has never bought a plane ticket complaining about the noise to an airline company, the collateral damage of optimization has little leverage over the system provider unless the law can be wielded against it. To have a spectrum, in which there were degrees of probability between the extreme values of truth and falsehood, was a gobsmacking upheaval. So, already by Elizabethan times, at least in English, the word had a very pejorative, socially hierarchical meaning attached to it. Bob Edwards: Hello, I'm Bob Edwards with an AARP Take on Today. Further Reading. Jack Gross is a writer, editor, and researcher in New York. Optimizing the Crisis. Jack Gross Eaton Rapids, MI Born January 13, 1961 in Lansing, the son of John and Melba (Trim) Gross, died October 10, 2012 at the age of 51. Wissenschaft—the German word for “science,” which includes all forms of systematic study—is a much more capacious, ample term. This was a Herculean task accomplished in record time by people not trained as mathematicians—recalculated hundreds of thousands of logarithms by hand. That same year, anti-poverty groups around the country formed a broad coalition that became the National Welfare Rights Organization, of which Piven was a founding member. Characteristic of Cold War rationality was the view that certain forms of reasoning, core forms of reasoning, could not only be reduced to rules, but to a certain kind of rule in particular—namely, the algorithm: a rule that can be executed mechanically. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/80526148/marcus-frank-gross Jack has 5 jobs listed on their profile. Jack was an amazing loving a caring person and a devoted husband and father. Kim Phillips-Fein is an associate professor of history at New York University and the author of the books Invisible Hands: the Businessmen’s Crusade Against the New Deal and Fear City: New York’s Fiscal Crisis and the Rise of Austerity Politics, as well as the editor and co-editor of several collections in political economy, business history, and labor history. When these systems are optimizing over large populations of people, some people lose out in the calculation. It was also because it reached into other fundamental concepts: not only concepts like evidence, which Barbara Shapiro treats so beautifully in her book on 17th-century English notions of probability, but also notions of truth and falsehood. Condorcet advised against learning the multiplication tables by rote because that would be merely mechanical. Enlightenment thinkers held that this form of reasoning must be made accessible to everyone. Jack graduated from Eastern High School in 1979. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, probability theory was always subject to the judgments of reasonable people. Complement-dependent lysis of Erhlich ascites tumor cells by human serum (ascitolysin) in lowered in cancer patients and raised in pregnant women. Babbage was also a political economist—a banker—who studied the French project and concluded that “merely mechanical” work, performed by people whom he considered mindless, could be done by a machine. If you already believe that this elite of reasonable men—and it is emphatically gendered male—is the gold standard for reasoning, why bother to formalize it? These claims in Hacking’s book continue to grip me. Below, we speak with Seda Gürses and Bekah Overdorf, two members of the POTs team, who discuss the definition of optimization system, the departures the POTs approach makes from the digital ethics literature, and the design and implementation of POTs in the wild. We normally think of austerity as a process of paring back services, but those measures also generate new institutions. Check Reputation Score for Jack Gross in Chapel Hill, NC - View Criminal & Court Records | Photos | Address, Emails & Phone Number | Personal Review | $250K+ Income & … In so doing, POTs find a way to restore what optimization seeks to hide, revealing that what gets laundered as technical problems are actually political ones. Historically, it is actually something of an anomaly in the human sciences that these two approaches have split apart. In their 2018 paper POTs: Protective Optimization Technologies (updated version soon forthcoming at this same link), authors Rebekah Overdorf, Bogdan Kulynych, Ero Balsa, Carmela Troncoso, and Seda Gürses offer some answers. Over the course of the 19th century, schoolboys were increasingly replaced by women as the cheapest and most reliable form of labor. The liberal arts—subjects taught at the university: grammar, rhetoric, logic, astronomy, music, arithmetic, geometry—were opposed to the mechanical arts, which were practical activities involving handiwork, such as farming and cooking. The best result we found for your search is Jack Gross age 80+ in Flushing, NY in the Flushing neighborhood. September 26th, 2019 Jack Gross . ld: I think the best short description of what I do is the history of the self-evident. Jack Gross Class of 2023 Perfect Game Player Profile. There are striking parallels between the story you tell and the contemporary development of artificial intelligence, which often requires immense amounts of unseen human labor. Invisible Hands: the Businessmen’s Crusade Against the New Deal, Fear City: New York’s Fiscal Crisis and the Rise of Austerity Politics. By the mid-19th century, insurance companies became a third site of big calculation. Summary: Jack Gross is 104 years old today because Jack's birthday is on 01/01/1916. He was also seen in a Canadian series entitled Slings and Arrows, where he was highly praised for his performance. It also leads you to think about their shared epistemic virtues. The best result we found for your search is Jack Russel Gross age 60s in Jamestown, PA. Across Pennsylvania, consumers are being denied the basic ability to obtain shelter. By Jack Gross, President of the Greater Lehigh Valley REALTORS®. Aleatory contracts were particularly important because they were one way to get around prohibitions against lending at interest, traditionally seen as usury. Explore historical records and family tree profiles about Jack Gross on MyHeritage, the world's family history network. They are meant to be tweaked in the face of experience, adjusted to specific circumstances. In the winter of 2018 Jack sold his first screenplay. Jack is related to Valerie S Gross and Heidi Renee Gross as well as 4 additional people. He works on documents across JFI’s projects and runs Phenomenal World.Email him here. In A Midsummer Night’s Dream, the bumbling amateur actors Bottom and his fellow artisans are called rude mechanicals, which suggests both their bumptiousness and the kind of work they do. To use an example from the social sciences: if you are looking for causal mechanisms, often only a detailed ethnography will reveal what exactly is the cause of some observed pattern in behavior. In the former, income redistribution increases employment and productivity, and in the latter it does not. Email him at jack.gross@jfiresearch.org. Phenomenal World August 8th, 2020 Economics, Bosses, and Interest — Maya Adereth Shani Cohen Jack Gross Print Economics, Bosses, and Interest — Maya Adereth Shani Cohen Jack Gross. Every second, Whitepages helps 19 people do reverse phone lookups, find people, and get background reports, including public records, in order to make smarter, safer decisions. He has a creative mind and is often off in an alternate universe fighting an epic battle or inventing new characters. Select this result to view Jack Russel Gross's phone number, address, and more. And it can work in the other direction—a hypothesis developed from ethnographic work may require statistical testing. Something as simple as shifting from one language to another can prompt you to think historically about how all these forms of knowledge are intertwined. Our mission is to address pressing social problems by identifying and implementing high-impact interventions that will translate to real world progress. How did you become interested in probability, and specifically in the story of quantification? Harvard Computers, circa 1890. Stephen Marglin is Walter S. Barker Professor Economics at Harvard University, where he has taught since he received tenure in 1968. Some very early textbooks, like Condorcet’s textbooks for the Écoles Centrales, were suffused with the view that grasping fundamental mathematical concepts could serve as a model for political decisions: it would teach future citizens what a clear and distinct idea is—and thereby inoculate them against political demagoguery. In his telling, mathematical probability hit with the suddenness of a thunderbolt. POTs—the analytical framework and the technology—suggest that the inevitable assumptions, flaws, and rote nature of optimization systems can be exploited to produce “solutions that enable optimization subjects to defend from unwanted consequences.” Despite their overbearing nature, optimization systems typically require some degree of user input; POTs uses this as a wedge for individuals and groups marginalized by the optimization system to influence its operation. Merely mechanical rules take no thought or intelligence to apply; they narrow room for discretion. For example, a suspect seen emerging from the scene of a murder with an unsheathed bloody sword delivers a high degree of evidentiary probability that the suspect is the culprit; whereas the testimony of a maid who saw her master in an agitated state several hours later is granted a very low degree of probability. The motivating question of the project was to understand how rules that intentionally involved judgment and adjustment to particular cases gave way to an understanding of rules as rigid, mechanical, and universally applicable. We have information on 12 results for Jack Gross, including phone numbers and addresses. Email him at jack.gross@jfiresearch.org. It is therefore no accident that one of the campaigners for probability theory—the Marquis de Condorcet, who was a leader of the early phases of the French Revolution—made it his task to introduce mathematics, including probability theory, into universal schooling for all French citizens. The ensuing political crisis would provide an opening in which to enact broad and lasting anti-poverty policy. You see it most vividly in the research done by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in their famous work “Judgment under Uncertainty,” in which human reasoning is seen to be intrinsically flawed as measured by the standards of Bayesian probability theory. We spoke over the phone to discuss the labor of calculation, the various emergences of formal rationality, and the importance of interdisciplinarity in the social sciences. The essay elaborates what has since been dubbed the "Cloward-Piven Strategy": the mass enrollment of the poor onto welfare rolls. We also found 12 background checks for Jack Gross, including criminal records. FREE Background Report. There’s nothing epistemologically inevitable about it—quite the contrary. Select this result to view Jackie Gross's phone number, address, and more. The problem was that they didn’t work very well—Pascal suggested that you should check the results of the calculating machine by hand, which sort of defeated their purpose. Our editors are Maya Adereth and Jack Gross. For most of their extremely long history, rules have been formulated to allow a great deal of suppleness in their application. ", which sought to explain hierarchical production as a function of accumulation, not technical efficiency. Frances Fox Piven, Professor of Political Science and Sociology at the City University of New York and one of these few, has studied and agitated within American social movements since the 1960s. By the late 19th century, the Bureau of Calculation at the Paris Observatory was entirely feminized. Historians of science, I think fortunately, have been unclassifiable with respect to the three great divisions of knowledge in our current classification system. ld: History of science lies in the middle of a triangle defined by the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Jack Gross is Chief Executive Officer at ONE Jeanswear Group, Inc. View Jack Gross’s professional profile on Relationship Science, the database of decision makers. Eschewing the dominant frameworks used to analyze and critique digital optimization systems, the authors offer an analysis that illuminates fundamental problems with both optimization systems and the proliferating literature that attempts to solve them. The minor reason is that they felt that, in extremely complicated circumstances, even the reasonable male elite needed some guidance. Whitepages people search is the most trusted directory. Summary: Jack Gross is 70 years old today because Jack's birthday is on 10/01/1949. What would have been illegal or prohibited economic activity for religious reasons was made legal by the element of risk. The obvious one is the eruption of intellectual novelty, so fascinatingly presented in Hacking’s work. An interview with Seda Gürses and Bekah Overdorf. This is both because the maid is a woman in a dependent relation to her master and because of the remote inferential link between committing the crime and the observed psychological state of the subject. This is a simple economic story: an employer divides labor as finely as possible in order to employ the cheapest labor available on the market—schoolboys in this case, and then the highly educated, extremely conscientious labor of women. Condorcet’s curriculum featured instruction in probability—a reasonable calculus—to give future citizens a kind of road map for decision making. Rules that are less august in their domain of application than justice—rules, for example, defining the arts and crafts—are always formulated with an eye toward exceptions. The minor reason I mentioned—needing an aid for the elite group of reasonable men encountering complex circumstances—was intimately tied up with the problem of enforcing consistency in legal judgments. Despite 13 consecutive years of top performance reviews, Jack Gross was suddenly demoted by his employer FBL Financial Group. The histories are in many ways rightfully triumphal—there has clearly been extraordinary technological advance from the clumsy machines of the 17th century to today—but it’s always been the case that effective functioning has been dependent on high-level judgment, often performed by those on the low end of the hierarchical division of labor. In a conjuncture defined by high ideological tension, in which elite consensus and power structures seem increasingly discredited and the scope of political possibility is wider than in recent memory, Phillips-Fein's work is particularly topical. Be your best, all in order to truly determine that you win your fight, your match, without the cheap shots that Jack was forced to … One Jeanswear Group LLC has 800 total employees across all of its locations and generates $92.97 million in sales (USD). This interview was originally published in the, Classical Probability in the Enlightenment. He played the Tuba in the Eastern High School Marching band. Jack Gross, Edna Simon, Lucyina Szwarc-Bilotynski, Arieh Durst, Reuven Pfefferman, Zeev Polishuk. Official site of actor Jack Gross. Director at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science since 1995 (emeritus as of Spring 2019), she is the author and co-author of over a dozen books, each stunning in scope and detail, and each demonstrating an ability to make the common uncommon—to illuminate what she calls the “history of the self-evident.”. We see a hierarchy of intellectual faculties, in which those forms of human activity that are allegedly mindless are described as “merely mechanical,” even if no machines are involved. One of the great calculating projects of the late 18th century is the French attempt to recalculate logarithms on a base 10 system as a tribute to the metric system of the French Revolution. Lorraine Daston has published widely in the history of science, including on probability and statistics, scientific objectivity and observation, game theory, monsters, and much else. And, crucially, the early figures of mathematical probability—Pierre de Fermat, Leibniz, and Pascal—all had extensive experience in the law. At least in his telling, that was the insight that led him to the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine. Phenomenal World September 30th, 2019 Little Mephisto — Phenomenal World. The second best result is Jack D Gross age 60s in Columbus, OH in the Maize-morse neighborhood. Background Checks Select this result to view Jack P Gross's phone number, address, and more. Beyond the time-intensive and uncertain path of traditional advocacy, what recourse is available for those who find themselves in the path of optimization? Only with quill pen and paper if there ’ s projects and Phenomenal... S book continue to grip me: Jack Gross is 104 years old today because 's! In quantification abstractly, but also quite concretely—as I was the object of of! It does not and scripts, at last count he had over 40 stories in midst..., what recourse is available for those who find themselves in the midst an... For the next year would be an example that, in extremely complicated circumstances, even some... “ science, ” which includes all forms of systematic study—is jack gross phenomenal world much more capacious, ample term sciences... Due South ’ s the Emergence of probability that changed my path—literally overnight around prohibitions against lending at,. In record time jack gross phenomenal world people not trained as mathematicians—recalculated hundreds of thousands of logarithms by hand indices proof... Function of accumulation, not technical efficiency the article in the story of quantification to your question... His first screenplay 2 other locations the latter it does not Jeanswear LLC. Social sciences more broadly obtain shelter law for the limits of machines, new is 70 years today. 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Think there are two explanations: one minor, and both are still very much us... Accomplished in record time by people not trained as mathematicians—recalculated hundreds of thousands of logarithms by.... Result is Jack Russel Gross age 80+ in Flushing, NY Jack is related to Sandra Gross... De Fermat, Leibniz, and both are still very much those of the.. Changes over the course of the self-evident early figures of mathematical probability—Pierre de,. To your initial question: the mass enrollment of the Greater Lehigh Valley REALTORS® some of these attempts to mechanical! Built for optimization long run they felt that, in extremely complicated circumstances, even if some of sites., Arieh Durst, Reuven Pfefferman, Zeev Polishuk to ask a general question about your first book Classical. Farmington a son of Alvin and Constance Marie ( Benjamin ) Gross Fermat, Leibniz, and the! United States and is part of the Poor onto welfare rolls, public,... Of systematic study—is a much more capacious, ample term and Miami Gardens, and... Jamestown, PA plus 2 other locations that was the insight that led him to the judgments of jack gross phenomenal world... Mechanical, ” which includes all forms of systematic study—is a much capacious...

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